The role of Southern Ocean processes in orbital and millennial CO2 variations – a synthesis

first_imgRecent progress in the reconstruction of atmospheric CO2 records from Antarctic ice cores has allowed for the documentation of natural CO2 variations on orbital time scales over the last up to 800,000 years and for the resolution of millennial CO2 variations during the last glacial cycle in unprecedented detail. This has shown that atmospheric CO2 varied within natural bounds of approximately 170–300 ppmv but never reached recent CO2 concentrations caused by anthropogenic CO2 emissions. In addition, the natural atmospheric CO2 concentrations show an extraordinary correlation with Southern Ocean climate changes, pointing to a significant (direct or indirect) influence of climatic and environmental changes in the Southern Ocean region on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Here, we compile recent ice core and marine sediment records of atmospheric CO2, temperature and environmental changes in the Southern Ocean region, as well as carbon cycle model experiments, in order to quantify the effect of potential Southern Ocean processes on atmospheric CO2 related to these orbital and millennial changes. This shows that physical and biological changes in the SO are able to explain substantial parts of the glacial/interglacial CO2 change, but that none of the single processes is able to explain this change by itself. In particular, changes in the Southern Ocean related to changes in the surface buoyancy flux, which in return is controlled by the waxing and waning of sea ice may favorably explain the high correlation of CO2 and Antarctic temperature on orbital and millennial time scales. In contrast, the changes of the position and strength of the westerly wind field were most likely too small to explain the observed changes in atmospheric CO2 or may even have increased atmospheric CO2 in the glacial. Also iron fertilization of the marine biota in the Southern Ocean contributes to a glacial drawdown of CO2 but turns out to be limited by other factors than the total dust input such as bioavailability of iron or macronutrient supply.last_img read more

O.C. High School Athletics Honored

first_imgOcean City High School receives the same honor this year as this one. Pictured is Schools Superintendent Dr. Kathleen Taylor and Athletic Director Geoffrey Haines in 2019. (Photos courtesy JASM Consulting) The school’s athletics was awarded the NJSIAA Sportsmanship Award for the second consecutive year, as well as the Ed Byrnes Memorial Award for the eighth year in a row, according to a news release. Both awards come from the team’s success on and off the field, even with a shortened 2019-2020 athletic season.“The Ed Byrnes Award shows how diverse our athletic skills are and how teamwork under great coaching staffs leads to success on the competition venues. The NJSIAA award shows the character of the student-athletes and coaches,” said the district’s Athletic Director Geoffrey Haines.Haines added, “It also takes more than just coaches, it is also the leadership of the teaching staff and building staff, to the athletic trainers to administration to a supportive community. I am proud of these honors and it shows that hard work pays off.” The awardees of the NJSIAA Sportsmanship Award are presented with a banner to be displayed with their other record-setting and championship honors as motivation for current and future athletes. “It’s great to see our students be acknowledged for their hard work and dedication to their teams and to the teams around them. It’s been a challenging few months, but they persevered,” said Schools Superintendent Dr. Kathleen Taylor. “I feel an immense sense of pride for our student- athletes and our athletic program.”This year, the high school was the only Cape Atlantic League school given this award, compared to last year when two other schools received the honor. Each conference has its own requirements for selecting recipients, usually presenting a banner to a school representing each of the divisions. Winners are chosen with a vote by other schools. Since it began 30 years ago, Ocean High School has been awarded the Ed Byrnes Memorial Award 18 times. The district athletics also receives the Ed Byrnes Memorial Award for the eighth consecutive year.This year is the eighth consecutive year. During the 2019/2020 season, the Red Raiders won a State Championship in girls soccer, additional South Jersey titles in girls basketball, boys cross country and girls cross country, and deemed Regional State Champions in girls basketball despite the finals being cancelled due to Covid-19. Ocean City High School also won conference or league championships in five different sports. The system used to determine what schools are awarded are points for championships won in both Cape Atlantic League and NJSIAA with bonuses for the number of different sports in which they were won. Under this system, which rewards a sports program’s versatility, a school that wins one championship in each of two different sports will get a higher score than if it won two championships in the same sport. Only sports in which the CAL crowns a champion are considered for the award.This all-sports award was created by Prime Events and Schoppy Inc. in 1991. It was renamed in memory of Edward Byrnes, the longtime Athletics Director and football coach at Holy Spirit, after he died in February 1996. Byrnes was president of the Cape Atlantic League for six years and had just won his 100th football victory just months before his passing.last_img read more