In a nod to her latest subject, the historian Jill Lepore made it clear that she wasn’t about to back down from a fight for justice.“If you want to doubt that Wonder Woman is a feminist project, we’ll have to take that outside,” the David Woods Kemper ’41 Professor of American History jokingly warned a Radcliffe audience on Thursday while discussing her new book, “The Secret History of Wonder Woman.”As it turns out, explained Lepore, the superheroine’s backstory is not only firmly rooted in feminist ideals, it’s also firmly rooted at Harvard. The creator of the most popular female cartoon character in history was a Harvard graduate, William Moulton Marston, who earned his bachelor’s degree, law degree, and Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard, and whose personal life and beliefs, deeply influenced by 20th-century feminists, were often splashed across the pages of Wonder Woman comic books.“Marston’s comic book,” said Lepore, “is actually autobiographical.” Wonder Woman first appeared in 1941. People and events from Marston’s life showed up regularly in the strip, including his efforts to use his lie-detector test, based on a person’s systolic blood pressure and developed and tested at Harvard, in court. Where Marston failed, Wonder Woman succeeded, using her magic lasso of truth on the witness stand on a woman suspected of leading a double life as the villain known as the Cheetah.But the underlying theme in Marston’s work was Wonder Woman as equal. Time and again his storylines put Wonder Woman at the center of “boycotts, strikes, and political rallies,” Lepore writes, where demands included better wages and more opportunity in careers and higher education. In a 1943 episode, Wonder Woman ran for president of the United States.“Marston’s Wonder Woman,” writes Lepore, “was a Progressive Era feminist, charged with fighting evil, intolerance, destruction, injustice, suffering and even sorrow, on behalf of democracy, freedom, justice, and equal rights for women.”In another barely veiled nod to feminism, the only way Marston’s Amazonian princess, who disguised herself as secretary Diana Prince, could lose her powers was if a man tied her down, which many men did repeatedly in the 1940s and ’50s. But while many readers have viewed the bondage scenes as sexual, Lepore said she sees something else in the imagery.“The bondage, gagging in Wonder Woman,” she told her listeners Thursday, “looks political to me.”Marston’s dedication to feminism developed early. During his freshman year the famous suffragist Emmeline Pankhurst was denied access to campus to give a talk. She delivered it instead in a packed-to-capacity hall on Brattle Street. Men climbed the walls trying to get in.“You realize that Wonder Woman is inspired by the suffragists, and early feminists, and birth control activists in the 1910s,” said Lepore. Rose Lincoln/Harvard Staff PhotographerAfter college Marston married Sadie Elizabeth Holloway, a dedicated feminist who received her master’s in psychology from Radcliffe while Marston studied around the corner where women weren’t allowed.Wonder Woman’s promise, Lepore told the Radcliffe crowd, “is to teach boys and girls that women can do anything, that girls can grow up and do anything.”Whether Marston actually lived his beliefs was a question complicated by his extremely complicated domestic life. Ten years into his marriage he delivered an ultimatum to his wife: let his new lover live with them, or he would leave her. The new lover was Olive Byrne, who also happened to be the niece of Margaret Sanger, the founder of the first birth-control clinic in the United States.The three set up house in Rye, N.Y., where another occasional lover lived with them on and off in the place they christened Cherry Orchard. Byrne raised the children, hers and Holloway’s, while Holloway worked and kept the family afloat. Marston wrote. He also “predicted that women would one day rule the world.”Lepore gets the irony. In 1937, when the American Medical Association endorsed birth control ― a huge victory for Sanger — “William Moulton Marston held a press conference about Amazonian rule, Olive Byrne was typing his books and raising his children,” Lepore writes, “and Sadie Elizabeth Holloway was supporting him. A matriarchy Cherry Orchard was not.”In the end, Lepore finds in the history of Wonder Woman a critical missing link between first- and second-wave feminists.“You realize that Wonder Woman is inspired by the suffragists, and early feminists, and birth control activists in the 1910s,” said Lepore. “Well that’s just a source of continuity, and then Gloria Steinem and others of her generation talk about reading Wonder Woman comics in the 1940s when Wonder Woman ran for president and it really affected them and they talk about that in the 1970s. … The missing link is finally there. The 20th century makes sense, at least for me. I needed that link to be there to understand the history of that struggle.” A 1912 drawing by the feminist cartoonist Annie Lucasta “Lou” Rogers, for the humor magazine Judge. Credit: University of Michigan Library A drawing by Wonder Woman artist Harry G. Peter accompanied an article titled “Why 100,000,000 Americans Read Comics” by William Moulton Marston, which ran in “American Scholar” in 1944. Credit: Harvard College Library The politics behind Wonder Woman A 1945 newspaper Wonder Woman comic strip depicts the superhero using her lasso of truth on the witness stand. The comic’s creator, William Moulton Marston is credited with creating the lie detector test. Credit: The Library of American Comics In the 1943 comic “Wonder Woman for President,” the superhero throws her hat in the ring for president of the United States. Credit: The Smithsonian Institution Libraries, Washington, D.C.
Press Association N’Zogbia ghosted into the left side of the West Ham penalty area, and rolled the ball back to Andreas Weimann, who moved inside before drilling a 15-yard strike straight at Adrian. In first-half stoppage time, West Ham worked the ball well from the right along the Villa penalty area out to Downing on the left – but the midfielder could only skew his shot into the side netting. Weimann threatened for Villa just after the restart, lifting a rising shot over following more positive approach play from Agbonlahor. Allardyce sent on captain Kevin Nolan after 65 minutes, replacing Cheikhou Kouyate. Tempers were rising, with Villa midfielder Tom Cleverley booked for clattering into Diafra Sakho, fit again following a shoulder injury, before Weimann was shown a yellow card for dissent. Adrian was alert to kick the ball away after Nolan’s clearance ricocheted back into the six-yard box. West Ham broke away down the right on 78 minutes through substitute Carlton Cole, who chipped the ball across to Sakho waiting on the penalty spot, but the usually clinical Senegal forward dropped a header wide. There was a stoppage when Villa defender Nathan Baker went down in his own penalty area after clattering into Cole, with referee Jon Moss awarding a free-kick against the West Ham striker – much to the frustrations of home players and fans alike. The injury, though, was serious enough for the Villa man to be carried off on a stretcher, replaced by Philippe Senderos. West Ham looked for a winner, as full-back Carl Jenkinson headed straight at the keeper, with Guzan then denying Carroll – on at the start of four minutes added time – as he palmed away a point-blank header from the England forward to earn Villa a well-deserved point. Irons manager Sam Allardyce, who had called for patience in the build-up to the game, saw his side make a positive start, with Mark Noble heading a deep cross from the right over and a free-kick from Enner Valencia deflected behind. Villa had set themselves up to be hard to break down, while also offering a forward threat through Andreas Weimann and Charles N’Zogbia, supported by Gabriel Agbonlahor, who came in for Christian Benteke, the Belgian starting a three-match ban after his red card against Spurs. The former England man darted into the West Ham box past James Collins, but then lifted his shot over the crossbar. At the other end, the Irons defender then sent a powerful header goalwards from a corner, which was straight at a grateful Guzan. West Ham maintained the pressure as the quarter-hour mark approached, but then almost hit the self-destruct button on 18 minutes as Winston Reid overhit a backpass, which goalkeeper Adrian mis-controlled and the ball almost rolled inside the far post. It was then the turn of Guzan to enjoy a slice of fortune as he came out to punch a highball into the box from Aaron Cresswell, but clattered into Aly Cissokho as he challenged with Diafra Sakho, the ball dropping wide. The American, though, showed good hands moments later as he beat away a fierce, angled drive from Stewart Downing, the one-time Villa midfielder just recalled to the England squad. Villa remained dangerous on the break, and went close on 38 minutes. Paul Lambert’s side had suffered six straight defeats since winning at Liverpool in mid-September to plummet down the table. However, Villa produced a determined, defensive display at the Boleyn Ground, where goalkeeper Brad Guzan denied Andy Carroll – back from an ankle injury – with a brilliant save in stoppage time to frustrate the Hammers, who had been looking to move back up into the top four following their impressive run of form. Aston Villa ended their Barclays Premier League losing streak after battling to a goalless draw at West Ham.
Teen gunned down in Masbate “You all know that had we played Korea or Japan tonight, we would be headed home,” Reyes told his players after they blew a 17-point lead and had to withstand a furious finish by the Qataris behind guard Mansour Elhadary.“No way we’ll win like that,” Reyes was quoted in a story sent by the Samahang Basketbol ng Pilipinas, which is providing details of Gilas games as no Philippine-based publication managed to beat Lebanon’s visa deadline on time.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSEnd of his agony? SC rules in favor of Espinosa, orders promoter heirs to pay boxing legendSPORTSRedemption is sweet for Ginebra, Scottie ThompsonSPORTSMayweather beats Pacquiao, Canelo for ‘Fighter of the Decade’Using speed yet again to win a third straight game and playing without big men Christian Standhardinger and June Mar Fajardo, Gilas took command early but then had a cold spell in the fourth quarter, allowing the Qataris to come dangerously close.Matthew Wright and Terrence Romeo quelled the last of the Iraqi uprisings with timely hits from the outside. Wright finished with 25 points built around seven triples, while Romeo made his only two field goals of the night inside the final three minutes. End of his agony? SC rules in favor of Espinosa, orders promoter heirs to pay boxing legend Gilas didn’t shoot that bad against Qatar, but it had 17 turnovers and couldn’t play solid-enough defense as Elhadary got away with 23 points and almost won it by himself for his team in the endgame.PBA DraftMeanwhile, the Philippine Basketball Association is now accepting applications for the 2017 Rookie Draft, slated Oct. 29 at Robinsons Place Manila in Ermita.The Commissioner’s Office set the deadline for submission of applications and requirements for half-Filipino players on Sept. 1.Local-born aspirants have until Oct. 12 to apply.After a preliminary list of rookie hopefuls with foreign blood is released, there will be a month-long period to contest an applicant’s eligibility.Rickie Santos, deputy commissioner for basketball operations, said the Draft Combine— which serves as a test to determine the skill set and physical and abilities of the players— will be scheduled on Oct. 23 to 26, with the venues still to be finalized.The final list of candidates for the Rookie Draft will be known Oct. 27.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Marcosian mode: Duterte threatens to arrest water execs ‘one night’ 2 nabbed in Bicol drug stings Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Ai-Ai delas Alas on Jiro Manio: ‘Sana pinahalagahan niya ang naitulong ko’ LATEST STORIES Vilma Santos, Luis Manzano warn public of fake account posing as her View comments Standhardinger is expected to play despite an aching shoulder on Wednesday, when the Filipinos battle the winner of the Korea-Japan match, which was being played at press time on Monday, according to a report by TV5’s Jutt Sulit.“No matter what, pain or no pain, I will play on Wednesday when it really counts,” said the 6-foot-8 Filipino-German, who sat out his first game in two tournaments with Gilas because of a severe stiff neck and sore shoulder.Standhardinger, who is averaging 15.5 points and 6.5 rebounds, said that the injury occurred after a rugged win over Iraq, when “somebody hit me in the back and I heard it pop.”The Koreans have a history of inflicting heart-rending defeats on the Filipinos and actually own a win the last time the two countries met, in the Jones Cup in Taipei, recently.In that game, the Philippines made just 1-of-26 from three-point distance in an 83-72 defeat that took the Filipinos out of the title hunt.ADVERTISEMENT Albay to send off disaster response team to Batangas Gilas Pilipinas players and coach Chot Reyes (right) pose for photographs on a makeshift stage outside Nouhad Nawfal Sports Complex in Beirut. Behind them are Filipino supporters as they celebrate their victory over Qatar, 80-74, in the Fiba Asia Cup on Sunday. Photo from Fiba.comA huge number of OFWs (Overseas Filipino Workers) celebrated with Gilas Pilipinas on Sunday night after the Filipinos topped Group B in the Fiba Asia Cup and advanced to the quarterfinals outright.But coach Chot Reyes was quick to remind his gung-ho wards that the way they played in a narrow 80-74 win over rugged Qatar won’t be enough to get the job done when they clash with either Japan or South Korea in the win-or-go home stage on Wednesday night.ADVERTISEMENT 787 earthquakes recorded in 24 hours due to restive Taal Volcano Flying V, Cignal eye PBA D-League title slots MOST READ 787 earthquakes recorded in 24 hours due to restive Taal Volcano Filipinos turn Taal Volcano ash, plastic trash into bricks PLAY LIST 01:40Filipinos turn Taal Volcano ash, plastic trash into bricks01:32Taal Volcano watch: Island fissures steaming, lake water receding02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite